A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated µC, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of Ferroelectric RAM, NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications. Microcontrollers enjoy immense popularity among electronics hobbyists and experimenters.
The CPU - sometimes referred to simply as the central processor, but more commonly called processor, is the brains of the computer where most calculations take place. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system. On large machines, the CPU requires one or more printed circuit boards. On personal computers and small workstations, the CPU is housed in a single chip called a microprocessor.